Mosul, Now and Post-ISIL
Suggestions of resolving the unsolved issues of Nainawa tribes:
A couple of day ago, I posted the latest of news from Mosul and promised a second part of the report. In this part, I would like now, to start talking about the next steps required to take place after liberating Mosul:
1- Total reconstruction of the city’s infrastructure, specifically the government buildings.
2- Contracting with international construction companies to rebuild the University of Mosul after all the destruction it encountered by ISIL.
3- Constructing a big museum for Mosul by the International coalition in cooperation with the Iraqi government to reconstruct all the ruins destroyed by ISIL and distribute them throughout the city.
4- Rebuild Jonah’s shrine for its social and historical importance to the Mosulis, as it is not only important to Muslims, but, it is important to all Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
5-Supporting youth initiatives and train them to participate in building the future for Mosul, especially the initiatives that encourage peaceful coexistence and renounce violence, extremism, and Hardline rhetoric.
The resolution of the tribal issue in Nainawa and our vision to resolve those unsolved issues:
First and foremost, it is a must to distinguish between “Mosul” and its historical identity as I explained it in my interview with the New Yorker (http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/the-secret-eye-inside-mosul). Mosul’s identity has no relevance to the identity of the tribes. Mosul is not “tribal society” as it is being rumored about it, but a civilized and urbanized city, does not have the tendency to religiosity, and neither the city’s Christians, nor its Muslims have identified themselves as religious, but as Mosuli urbanized citizens.
The tribes are considered a massive human and economic power, and it has its effective negative and positive role in the Iraqi society, and in Nainawa’s society in particular, it can provide to Mosul’s future great opportunity to reform the social and economic systems of the city. It is important to point out that invoking any effective change on those tribe through the suggested recommendations below will not only affect the Sunni tribes in Iraq only, but their effects will ripple beyond the Iraqi borders, to the tribes in the neighboring Syria, which will cause an economical effect over large swaths of land expanding between Iraq and Syria due to the strong and deep bonds among the tribes, specifically the tribes populating the borders, in addition to ISIL’s invasion of Nainawa has led to direct interaction between the Arab tribes with the Kurds, especially in Sinjar, Rabi’ya, Qayyara and Nainawa Plains, to the point where is has become very difficult to break this interaction, or to gain back the Arab land, because the Kurdish forces, along with the Yazidi forces and People’s Protection Units has committed genocides against the residents of the Arab areas. Therefore, any chance for the Arab tribes to gain their own political independence, they must gain an effective economical and administrative power in their areas to balance it with the Kurdish and Yazidi forces.
We can divide Nainawa’s tribes according to their geographical distribution to the following areas:
1- The border tribes: They mainly live along the Iraqi-Syrian Border line, and at western Nainawa spanning from Rabiy’a to the north to Ba’aj and Al-Hadhar to the south west. The main tribal power in this area are in the hands of Shammar tribe in Rabiy’a, Bu-Badran, Bu-Hamad and Bu-matyout.
2- The interior tribes: They mainly occupy the areas spanning from Talafar in the north west down through Mosul District and southern Mosul to the south east and south west bordering Makhmur and Nainawa Plains. This area is mainly dominated by Al-O’baids, Al-Jihaish, Al-Zubaids, and branches of Al-Jubur, Al-Na’aim and Ta’is.
3- The middle tribes: they mainly distributed from Qayyar all the way to Shirqat, and they are the pure tribes in Nainawa. Al-Jubur, Al-Lihiab and Al-Saba’awi tribes are their main tribes in this area.
And by reviewing the Islamic state division system, which is the Wilaiyat division, we find that IS division was based on “Small-Local administrative units”, where it divided Nainawa into the following divisions:
1- Dijla Wilaiyat: includes the areas south of Mosul and they are: Qayyar, Shirqat, Al-Hadhar, Al-Zab, Hammam Al-Alil, and the surrounding villages.
2- Al-Jazeera Wilaiyat: includes the areas from Sinjar, Tal Abta, Talafar, Zummar and Al-Ba’aj
3- Mosul Wilaiyat: includes Mosul district and Nainawa plains.
This division provided ISIL administrative power, sustainable development, and great deal of influence, which guaranteed the tribes loyalty because they have their own control over their own economic resources, as well their resources management freely and flexibly.
Based on the previous points, we can determine the optimal method to how invest in tribal Nainawa post-ISIL, because stability and economic power means lasting peace.
The tribes are not ruled by constant principles and concepts, but rather ruled by the concepts of the power that controls them that provides them with decent circumstances to grow and prosper. therefore, we cannot deal with the tribes as ISIL-Loyalists, but more as loyalists to the economical and administrative system of ISIL, which the Iraqi government failed to provide it to them.
SMALL LOCAL ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS
The provincial law for provinces not enrolled in a region No. 21 of 2008 provides in its amended Act no. 15 of 2010, in part 1 that: Councils and its structuring procedure, the second article, amended by the second amendment No. 19 of 2013:
– First: Provincial Council: is the legislative and regulatory authority in the province has the right to issue domestic legislation that enables it to administer its affairs in accordance to the principle of administrative decentralization that does not conflict with the constitution and the federal laws that fall within the exclusive powers of the federal authorities.
– Second: councils have the legal status and financial independence, represented by its President or his nominee.
– Third: councils are subject to the regulations of the House of Representatives.
– Fourth: local governments will be responsible for all requirements of the administrative unit management according to the principle of administrative decentralization.
– Fifth: local governments exercise the powers prescribed in the Constitution and federal laws in local affairs except for the exclusive powers of the federal authorities provided for in Article 110 of the Constitution.
This statute provides the legal means to transform Nainawa to small administrative unites that has freedom of management and trade within their jurisdiction, which will help to fast development and economic prosperity that will eventually rewards back to the Iraqi government, and helps It maintains stability in the Sunni Arab areas through the construction of trans-local economic partnerships. We have five examples we may start the project with them:
– Dijla Administrative unit: includes Qayyara, Shirqat, Al-Hadhad, Al-Zab, Hammam Al-Alil and their surrounding villages.
– Rabiy’a Administrative unit: Rabiya is considered a stand-alone unit as it is majorly dominant by Shammer tribe.
Mosul Administrative Unit: this unit may be jointly managed by the known merchant families in the city and the dominant tribes of Mosul. This will require a future thorough study on how to implement it in Mosul.
– Jazeera Administrative unit: includes Sinjar, Tal Abta, Talafar, Zummar and Ba’aj. This unit will not only influence directly the tribes of this region, but its influence will pass over to Syria and Anbar as well.
– Nainawa Plains Administrative unit: this unit will face great challenges to be implemented in this region, due to its heavy intertwining among the Arabs, the Kurds and the religious and ethnic minorities. Establishing a universal economic partnership for all those groups through multinational investments will contribute to future and permanent resolution among those minorities.
How to treat those small administrative units?
1- To deal with Nainawa as separated units, not one single unit
2- Each administrative unit is a stand-alone province from a social, economic, services and management perspective, and each unit has the right to issue its laws and regulations that do not conflict with the Constitution that will allow it to manage its affairs.
3- Give the tribe leaders the chance to represent the domestic authority in their areas.
4- Revive the commercial role of the Sunni tribes at western border areas of Nineveh, and granting the tribes commercial freedom in association with their local government and give them the freedom manage trade transportation through their areas.
5- Grant the local tribes administrative authority over their areas that gives them the freedom to manage their regions and maintain their connection with the provincial and domestic government. Also to facilitate the tribes’ role by assisting them to establish the necessary governing institutions to regulate their residents’ affairs.
6- Grant the tribes officially to oversee the trade ways that pass through their territory. This will provide the tribes an income revenue to develop their areas and employ their unemployed resources.
7- Deal with the tribes upon economic bases, not upon sectarian bases, through opening the opportunity for investment in their regions. Those local administrative units help provide great investment opportunities for industrial and cultivation development.
8- Enable the decentralization of the small administrative units as part of a broader reform. This step will assist in redefining the relationship between central and local authorities, and re-thinking the key issues in representation and participation, accountability and local development, which aims eventually to the reformation of the political system itself.
9- Establish micro local councils at the areas mentioned earlier, and dealing with those councils by the domestic and central governments as companies of group of companies operating on the principle of mutual benefit.
10- Those boards will provide support to the tribes at their regions to create a media platforms that will meet the needs of their geographic areas under their management. Media will give the tribes a sense of autonomy and administrative power that will, in the end, return to the bigger local administrations, which are the local government and provincial council administration.
11- Dealing with the tribes as joint-stock companies in a larger company, which is “the provincial government” that will pay the tribes to develop their areas larger and faster.
12- Establishing census and studies centers specialized in Nainawa’s tribes to provide a permanent and updated database about the tribes and to come up with modern perceptions about the growth and development of the small administrative units and for the purpose of regulatory and future plans of those units.
13- Avoid repeating the Sahawat (Awakening) experience in Nainawa. The real awakening that should be developed is the economic awakening and not military. The tribes will gain economic stability will seek to impose security at their regions, which will eventually bring peace and security throughout Nainawa. Economy will force the tribes to sustain safety and stability to prosper.
14- Urge the tribes to adopt agricultural development and rebuilding agricultural systems in their areas, which are available at large swaths west of Nainawa, Nainawa Plains and south of Nainawa, by providing the freedom to import agricultural equipment.
Those some of the solutions we believe that, if they are implemented as suggested, they will help, on the long run, sustain peace and retain the coherence, not in Mosul only, but over all Nainawa, as well it will force stability on the other side of the border, in Syria.